Saturday, August 15, 2015

Imad Hamad's Detroit News column on the FBI, plane surveillance and CVE




Imad Hamad, American Human Rights Council executive director, has written an excellent opinion column for the Detroit News on the issues of the use of FBI surveillance planes and the use of counseling by the FBI for those young Muslims suspected of radicalization and of being high risk for  involvement in terror activity. The column read in part:

There is no doubt that the U.S. faces a real terror threat. And surveillance, when it comports with the law and the democratic traditions of the nation, is a legitimate and necessary law enforcement tool. The FBI planes are not solely an Arab or Dearborn issue, and portraying them as such is inaccurate and perhaps irresponsible as well.

Most importantly for the Arab and Muslim American community, the news of the FBI planes over parts of Metro Detroit came when the Wall Street Journal published on Aug. 5 a report about FBI efforts to counter violent extremism.

The article quoted Dearborn Police Chief Ron Haddad, who was contacted by a family concerned about their son possibly joining the terror group Islamic State. The Dearborn police helped the family obtain psychiatric help for the troubled teen. The usage of the intervention model of counseling for troubled teens who sympathize with terrorist organizations or indicate interest in joining them is a very important development that was overshadowed by the FBI plane over Dearborn saga. It is a laudable development that did not get the attention it deserves.

 


 

Tuesday, May 5, 2015

The Lessons of the Wissam Allouche case: About lies, not terrorism


Wissam Allouche arrested by the JTTF

Flag of the Lebanese Shia Amal Movement

The Lessons of the Wissam Allouche case:
An American Lebanese Shiite Muslim caught in the government and media dog- and- pony show

Wissam Allouche, a Lebanese Shia immigrant from Lebanon was sentenced to five years in prison for lying on his citizenship application and for lying to get a security clearance from the Department of Defense. The US government had asked for a ten- year sentence.

Allouche’s criminal case began in 2013 and he was tried and convicted in 2015 in the Western District of Texas district court.  After conviction, the US Attorney for the Western district of Texas issued a press release that read in part:

“Jurors found that defendant lied about his previous association with the Amal militia This afternoon in San Antonio, a federal jury convicted 45–year-old Lebanese–born Wissam “Sam” Allouche of knowingly lying to federal authorities on his U.S. citizenship petition about his relationship with the Amal militia, announced Assistant Attorney General for National Security John Carlin, Acting United States Attorney Richard Durbin, Jr., and FBI Special Agent in Charge Christopher Combs, San Antonio Division.

Following a two-week trial, jurors convicted Allouche of making a false statement to a federal agent and an unlawful attempt to procure and obtain naturalization and citizenship. Evidence presented during trial revealed that Allouche, who migrated to the United States after marrying a U.S. Army soldier, failed to disclose to U.S. immigration authorities the fact that in the 1980s, he was a member of the Amal militia in order to remain in the United States. In addition, while seeking a contract linguist position with the U.S. Department of Defense that required top security clearance, evidence revealed that Allouche failed to disclose that he was held as a prisoner of war by Israel. Present and former relatives testified Allouche later made statements that he subsequently killed an Israeli pilot captured by Hezbollah in retaliation for his imprisonment.
Allouche remains in federal custody pending sentencing scheduled for April 27, 2015. He faces up to ten years in federal prison.”

The indictment filed on May 15, 2013 had three counts, below is an excerpt from the indictment:



"COUNT ONE
[18 U.S.C. § 1425(b)]

            On or about January 12, 2009, within the Western District of Texas, the Defendant
WISSAM ALLOUCHE,
for himself, a person not entitled to naturalization and citizenship, knowingly procured and obtained, and attempted to procure and obtain naturalization and citizenship by falsely stating regarding his Form-400 Application for Naturalization, Part 10, Question 9.c, “No” in response to the question “Have you ever been a member of or in any way associated (either directly or indirectly) with a terrorist organization?” when in truth and fact the Defendant was a fighter in the Amal militia in Lebanon during the early to mid-1980s and after his release as an Israeli prisoner of war, the Defendant was made a commander in the Amal militia; as an Amal commander, the Hizballah fighters in his sector had to notify the Defendant of their operations. Hizballah is classified by the United States government as a Designated Foreign Terrorist Organization.
            In violation of Title 18, United States Code, Section 1425(b).
COUNT TWO
[18 U.S.C. § 1425(b)]

            On or about January 12, 2009, within the Western District of Texas, the Defendant,
WISSAM ALLOUCHE,
for himself, a person not entitled to naturalization and citizenship, knowingly procured and obtained, and attempted to procure and obtain naturalization and citizenship by falsely stating regarding his Form-400 Application for Naturalization, Part 2, Question B, Defendant claimed that he and his wife were married and living together for the last three years, when in truth and actuality, the Defendant and his wife they had not lived together since May 2007 and filed for divorce in Bexar County on December 7, 2007.
            In violation of Title 18, United States Code, Section 1425(b).
COUNT THREE
[18 U.S.C. § 1001]

            On or about October 14, 2009, within the Western District of Texas, the Defendant,
WISSAM ALLOUCHE,
knowingly and willfully made a materially false, fictitious, and fraudulent statement in any matter within the jurisdiction of the executive branch, to wit: in order to gain security clearance from the United State Department of Defense, on his Form SF-86, Questionnaire for National Security Position, Section 29 Question g, “Have you EVER participated in militias (not including official state government militias) or paramilitary groups?”, the Defendant answered “No” when in truth and fact, the Defendant was a fighter and commander of the Amal militia in Lebanon during the early to mid-1980’s.
            In violation of Title 18, United States Code, Section 1001(a)(2)."

Not a terror-related case
Just because Mr. Allouche is a Shiite Lebanese does not make his immigration case terror related. He was charged and convicted for lying to the government authorities about his membership in Amal. He was a member of the Lebanese Shia Amal Movement. Amal is not a designated terror group.  In his capacity as an Amal commander, he was in contact with Hizbullah. Hizbullah is classified as a terror group. But it is highly doubtful that the mere contact he had with Hizbullah in Lebanon during his involvement with Amal would count as an illegal association with Hizbullah that would lead to imprisonment and/or deportation. Interestingly, there is a terrible history of violence between Amal and Hizbullah.  The time Allouche was in Amal, there were violent clashes between Amal and Hizballah. In fact, the clashes resulted, in part, from  Amal not wanting Hizbullah to conduct operations against Israel that would invite reprisals against the Southern civilian population.

The media follows the government’s lead: Allouche as a terror case
Some media sources have gotten the facts of the case mixed up. Allouche was not charged with being a Hizbullah member or a former Hizbullah member as a mysanantonio article described him. He was neither charged nor convicted of being a member or a former member of Hizbullah. The bottom line is that Allouche lied on his application. Allouche also had marital problems. But he also seemingly lived an otherwise law-abiding life. He even volunteered to work in Iraq as a linguist when it was vital for US armed forces to have linguists and being a linguist was a very dangerous undertaking in Iraq.

Reasonable minds would agree: Allouche was neither a terrorist nor a security risk
Was Wissam Allouche a national security risk? Despite the fact the Joint Terrorism Task Force led the investigation and made the arrest, there is zero evidence that, at any point in time, even during his Lebanon years, Allouche was even remotely a risk to US security. He was a member of the Shia Amal Movement, a movement that used to be the leading Shiite Lebanese group before Hizbullah eclipsed it. His involvement with Amal led him to contact with Hizbullah- and it was contact during a period when the relationship was adversarial turning into bloody violent.

Had Allouche not lied on his citizenship application and his security clearance application, he would not have been in his situation now facing a five year imprisonment followed by deportation to Lebanon.  

Allouche made mistakes but the critical fact here is that he is a victim of a bad marriage and the war on terror. Allouche is an American Lebanese Shiite Muslim caught up in the government and media  WOT dog- and- pony show





ADC's Abdrabboh column in the Detroit News

Attorney Fatina Abdrabboh

Wayne county prosecutor Kim Worthy





In the Detroit News, American-Arab anti-Discrimination Committee (ADC) Michigan office regional director wrote a column entitled "Yes hate crimes happen here." The column's genesis is in the Kroger case that ADC took but the Wayne County prosecutor Kim Worthy declined to prosecute as a hate crime. [This is the same Kim Worthy that charged an Arab immigrant gas station clerk with first degree murder for shooting a customer in the back, once, with the customer dying later from complications]

The picture that attorney Abdrabboh describes as to the prosecution of hate crimes is accurate. Many times meeting the burden of proof is a great challenge and going the civil route with its lower evidentiary standard is the only avenue of relief. Arab Americans need organizations such as the Arab American anti- Discrimination Committee (ADC) to defend their civil rights and civil liberties and the Kroger case shows that while our society is admirably tolerant and inclusive, there are individuals who hate Arab Americans and are willing to act on this hate.  Hating Arabs as a people is immoral, acting on this hate is illegal.
Ms Abdrabboh’s column, however, should not be perceived as an invitation to revisit the issue whether our society should criminalize “hate crime” as such.  The case is settled and the law will not be changed in the foreseeable future.
 'In Wisconsin v. Mitchell, Chief Justice Rehnquist said: "a defendant's abstract beliefs, however obnoxious to most people, may not be taken into consideration by a sentencing judge." However, "the belief is no longer abstract once it provides the motive for discriminatory action.'
In Wisconsin v. Mitchell, 9/9 Justices approved enhanced punishment for hate crimes and 49 states filed amicus briefs in support of harsher sentences for hate crimes. "Hate crimes" exist and state governments, the federal government and the Supreme Court support hate crime legislation.

Link to column: http://www.detroitnews.com/story/opinion/2015/05/05/hate-crimes-happen/26885183/


The wisdom of the importation of the politics of division to the Muslim and Arab American communities







My dissertation was on the political behavior of Arab Americans. Using the data from the Detroit Arab American study, I examined three forms of political participation- voting, campaign donations and writing to political officials. I looked at the differences between national groups, faith groups and generations. I found that there is no significant difference in political participation between Christians and Muslims and that education and income are, as expected, strongly linked to political participation. One finding that showed assimilation of Arab Americans was the consistent increase in participation between the generations-from the first generation through the third generation.

We know that Arab Americans are assimilating and are part of the political process. However, my study relied on survey data. Surveys are snapshots of reality. The data was gathered after 9/11. Did political participation increase after 9/11? The survey numbers could not address that. In addition to relying on the survey data, I interviewed a number of Muslim Arab American and Arab American activists to get their insights on Arab- American participation. They were able to provide the history and the contextual knowledge to help better understand and explain the numbers.

An Arab American activist told me that a number of factors helped increase Arab- American political participation.  One of them was the Gulf War. Another was the unification of Yemen. Before the unification of Yemen, the Yemeni community was divided between North and South. The pro South would not attend the events attended by the pro North and vice versa. Foreign- based organizations were very active and their American supporters’ attention was on international politics rather than American national politics. Yemen was unified, the Cold War ended, Saddam invaded Kuwait and the US forced him out. All these factors, he said, made Arab Americans turn inward and work together as Arab Americans and get more involved in American politics.

The Muslim American activist attributed increased and accepted Muslim political participation to generational change. He said some in the old generation was divided over whether participating in American politics is halal or haram. Still others even questioned whether a Muslim can live a real Muslim life in America. One argument was that if Muslims cannot change American politics toward the Muslim world, especially as to the Palestinian issue, then there is no point to involvement in American politics. The 9/11 attacks settled this ongoing conversation in favor of those who wanted participation and national Muslim American organization not only said it is permissible to participate in American politics, they now say it is even religiously obligatory. Part of the change is in leadership with younger generations more familiar with and more comfortable with American politics and culture. The other reason the young activist gave was the realization that in a democracy if you do not participate then your interests are not represented or protected. There is strength in numbers, working with large blocs, therefore, these groups tried to minimize internal divisions and work together to counter real threats facing American Muslims.

Political developments overseas again threaten to weaken whatever Arab and Muslim political unity have coalesced.  Unity, or the appearance of unity, was evident until 2003. The 2003 invasion of Iraq was the first divisive development. With the Arab Spring came more polarization. One way to gauge the extent of polarization is listening to anecdotes of daily friction between member of different Arab and Muslim communities. The level of polarization and division is seen in the harsh rhetoric on the Facebook community group, Dearborn Area Community Members, with the division being Sunni-Shia, pro Iran v. pro Saudi Arabia.

Given this reality, are the years of collective action gone? Are the days when Arab Americans used to protest together in support of unifying causes such as Lebanon or Gaza against Israeli aggression over? Are the days when Arabs and Muslims stood together facing the national backlash from the 9/11 attacks long gone?
Arab and Muslim Americans are all together facing a very serious challenge. The 9/11 attacks and their aftermath is not behind us.  That challenge is not gone and the community’s future is still connected to national and international events beyond Arab American and Muslim American control.

The Arab American activist told me that in the aftermath of 9/11 Bush’s Attorney General visited Dearborn and met with Arab American leaders. Listening to the complaints and concerns of the attendees, he told them that if there were another attack on US soil, all bets are off.

We as Arab and Muslim Americans are still demonized by key mainstream media. Our loyalty and patriotism are questioned by important figures. We have a problem of the threat of the radicalization of our youths that risk being brainwashed into joining terrorist organizations or engaging in terrorist acts. This threat of youth radicalization is added to the other threats facing them as American youths- teenage pregnancy, drugs, alcohol, etc. Those who organize divisive events, protests and counter protests are invited to visit the Dearborn courthouse to see what issues face our youths that we are not taking care of.

Young people on Facebook are saying all kinds of things, including speech that is abusive or sectarian and divisive. But it is one thing for the young and immature to be divisive but a completely different thing for the adults, those in leadership positions, to organize around division and conflict.

Importing inter Arab and inter Islamic disputes to our community is simply unwise. The leaders behind the organization of divisive protests and counter protests, divisive events, have to rethink the wisdom of importing division to our community in light of former attorney general Ashcroft candid warning.*





Entry appeared in the Forum and Link of April 30, 2015.



Monday, April 20, 2015

Interview with Imad Hamad, Executive Director of the American Human Rights Council “Our ‘Protecting Our Humanity’ banquet was a great success and we sense a strong support of human rights in the Arab and Muslim communities.”

Imad Hamad, AHRC Executive Director





Imad Hamad is a well- known figure in the Detroit Arab American community. After leaving the American Arab anti- Discrimination Committee, Mr. Imad Hamad and others formed the American Human Rights Council (AHRC). The Forum and Link attended the packed first banquet. The creation of a new organization whose focus is on human rights was a brilliant idea for Mr. Hamad. There are many organizations in the community who do great work. AHRC is the only community based organization that focuses on human rights. H.E. Dr. Clovis Maksoud, AHRC Honorary Chair, in an email addressed to AHRC and its supporters stated: “AHRC comes at a time when the abuse of human rights in many parts of the world and its destructive impact on the unity of many societies, your advocacy to emphasis human rights and humanitarian aid in the United States must also be translated to areas where it is even much more required. What many societies in Africa and in the Arab World are experiencing at this moment must be included in your corrective role of the flaws and political defects that allows the abuse of human and humane rights to be regularly violated. Your role as human rights activists should broaden its scope beyond the American national scene into a network of your colleagues throughout the world in upholding the moral and ethical values to which you are committed and which should be pursued internationally.”

Imad Hamad is a true humanitarian. Over the years through his involvement in the non- profit sector he has helped many people. He has mentored people and encouraged men and women to volunteer and be involved in community activism. Mr. Hamad has received many recognitions over the years and has been interviewed by national and international media. He continues his work in the non- profit sector by moving from civil rights and civil liberties to defending and promoting human rights in the US and in the rest of the world. It is not easy to form an organization and to organize a successful banquet. Mr. Hamad and his team are off to a great start.
 The following are excerpts from an interview with Mr. Hamad.

F & L: Congratulations on a successful banquet. How do you feel?
Hamad: Relieved and thankful. Organizing AHRC, planning the event and the banquet consumed countless hours and a lot of effort. I am relieved that we have been able to reach this point and held an event that everyone acknowledges was a great event. I am thankful for the generosity of our donors and supporters. We have a great board and board chair. Our volunteers did a great job. The owner and the staff at Byblos helped us have a great event. I am grateful to the parents of the courageous American woman Kayla Mueller, Marsha and Karl Mueller, who joined us at our event and accepted her award.

F &L: Why did you choose to recognize and honor Kayla Mueller?
Hamad: We chose her for many reasons two of which are what she stood for and the ultimate sacrifice she made. She was a woman that represented the best American values, who believed in human rights and risked her life to help others- in Palestine and in Syria. She was killed by extremism and terrorism, the enemies of human rights. Kayla is a role model, her legacy inspires us. The words of Marsha Mueller provide inspiration to the work we do, she said “help us carry on Kayla’s legacy through sowing seeds of compassion, kindness and peace.” Marsha and Karl Mueller raised a true humanitarian.

F &L: Are you happy with the media coverage?
Hamad: Yes. The media is very important for the survival and continuity of democracy and for helping create a culture of human rights.

F & L: Who attended the banquet?
Hamad: About 500 people attended our banquet at Byblos banquet hall. We are being talked about because for a young organization we have started with a strong event. We had a number of officials in attendance and received 30 proclamations. We had 12 state representatives in attendance. It is a great vote of confidence in the organization and its leadership. It is an attestation to the need and necessity for an organization like AHRC.

F & L: Some ask whether we need another organization in the community. Why is AHRC needed?
Hamad: The support we get, the turnout we had at the banquet, they all testify to the clear sense people have that AHRC is needed. We are not in competition with any other organization. We believe all of them do good work and are needed. Our vision and our mission complement what others do. We focus on human rights- the creation of a culture of human rights. We need that outlook, that orientation, that frame of reference.

F & L: What do you think of the events in the Arab world? Is advocacy of human rights able to counter violence and hate?
Hamad: What is happening in the Arab world is tragic. Take Yemen for example- one of the poorest countries in the world and perhaps the poorest in the Arab world. You have people dying and suffering. Human rights advocacy is about respecting the human rights of each and every individual. We are helping create a culture of respect of human rights of all. I truly believe that once we respect and honor each other as human beings, we will go a long way in diffusing the tensions that lead to violent conflict.

F & L: Any final thoughts?
Hamad: Our banquet was a great success and we sense a strong support of human rights in the Arab and Muslim communities. We aspire to augment the conversation on civil rights and liberties within the broader frame of human rights. We are working to sustain the momentum. We are moving forward and we are confident that AHRC will grow and the cause of human rights will get the visibility and advocacy that it deserves with our efforts and the efforts of our sister organizations in the human rights community. Dr. Alzohili, our board president, said that “injustice and hatred are a threat to everybody.” The promotion of human rights is the antidote to injustice and hatred.

Thank you for the interview. Please convey my sincere appreciation to the Forum and Link publisher my friend Dr. Assad Dandashli.



Thursday, January 29, 2015

Imam Elahi is the Voice of Wisdom and Compassion on the ICA-Qazwini Saga

Imam Elahi of the Islamic House of Wisdom

Islamic House of Wisdom of Dearborn Heights, MI



The dispute between imam Qazwini and the Islamic Center of America's board has divided the members, friends and supporters of the Islamic Center of America (ICA). Harsh, sometimes nasty and almost always unholy language has been used to comment on the dispute. The most troubling aspect of the Islamic Center of America saga is some of the tactics used and the vulgar language used by some of the supporters of imam Qazwini. Qazwini himself inflamed the situation further when he used inflammatory rhetoric- referring to his opponents as cancer, ISIS and Yazeed. 
Recently imam Elahi of the Islamic House of Wisdom spoke words of peace, compassion and wisdom. using language of reconciliation and genuine concern in a posting on the Dearborn Area Community Members Facebook page. That Facebook page, whose administrator is Dearborn attorney Majid Moghnieh, had seen many exchanges of harsh and nasty rhetoric between supporters and opponents of imam Qazwini. Some of the comments make you wonder how can such language be used when the issue is an imam and an Islamic center. 

Imam Elahi, troubled by the divisiveness, posted the following:

وَلَا تَنَازَعُوا فَتَفْشَلُوا وَتَذْهَبَ رِ‌يحُكُمْ وَاصْبِرُ‌وا إِنَّ اللَّـهَ مَعَ الصَّابِرِ‌ينَ
Do not quarrel with each other lest you fail or lose honor. Exercise patience; God is with those who have patience. The Holy Quran 8/46
My beloved brothers and sisters,
Please read and reflect on the above verse! I say this with a heart full of wound and sadness. It is not about imam Qazwini, IC board, and our community anymore! The forces of Islamophobia who use any opportunity to damage the image of our faith are making so many comments irrelevant to this subject, yet so harmful to our entire identity as Arab and Muslim community. Let’s stop fueling this devastating fire which would eventually burn both sides of this crisis. Let’s be part of a solution; let’s work for some reconciliation between Sayyed Qazwini and certain board members of IC. Even if reconciliation was impossible, let’s find a peaceful end.
Please don’t post the stuff that creates more division and animosity among our community. Our faith is about respect for human dignity, rights and responsibility. Only God is perfect, let Him be our God not our ego and arrogance. Let’s speak with the language of love, forgiveness and appreciation.
Let’s end this war of words that has no victory for anyone and show more humility for the sake of healing and harmony among our brothers and sisters.
I already sent messages to the Sayyed and the Center expressing the willingness of the humble House of Wisdom to help reconciliation or peaceful end to this sad situation. We need everyone prayer and help in this direction!
وَاعْتَصِمُوا بِحَبْلِ اللَّـهِ جَمِيعًا وَلَا تَفَرَّ‌قُوا
Hold fast, all together, to God’s cord, and do not be divided ( Quran 3-103)
إِنَّمَا الْمُؤْمِنُونَ إِخْوَةٌ فَأَصْلِحُوا بَيْنَ أَخَوَيْكُمْ وَاتَّقُوا اللَّـهَ لَعَلَّكُمْ تُرْ‌حَمُونَ
The faithful are indeed brothers. Therefore, make peace between your brothers and be wary of God, so that you may receive [His] mercy.( the Quran 49-10)
Your humble servant
Mohammad Ali Elahi
1/26/15
.

Wednesday, January 28, 2015

Understanding the Dispute at the Islamic Center of America: Excerpts from Liyakat Nathani Takim's book Shi'ism in America

Islamic Center of America




Understanding the Dispute at The Islamic Center of America: Helpful Excerpts from Liyakat Nathani Takim's book Shi'ism in America

The Islamic Center of America is in the news due to the dispute between the board and its imam Hassan Qazwini.

There is nothing exceptional or suis generis in the ongoing dispute. Issues of ethnicity, finances, “mosque politics” all help understand the dispute.

One academic work that helps one understand the dispute is Liyakat Nathani Takim's book Shi'ism in America. Below are excerpts from his book:

  Page 55:
Most Shi’i immigrants try to impose the homeland culture in America by determining how the mosques are run, or what is an acceptable dress code, language, and behavior. Newer immigrants also tend to have their own predispositions on issues such as gender integration, political activism in a non-Muslim country, engagement with different ethnic groups, interfaith dialogue, joint activity with Sunnis, and the like. In many cases, Shi’i immigrants tend to emphasize the public expression of their religious beliefs and practices and are thus less likely to assimilate.

Immigrants also challenge the American expression of Islam, precipitating a crisis and even splits within certain mosques. They bring with them a more intense form of Shi’ism, one whose discourse is frequently more aggressive and polemic, reasserting thereby the traditional demarcating lines between Shi’ism and Sunnism. Thus, immigration has enhanced tensions between the Sunnis and Shi’is who come from a different culture. As they try to impose a homogenized, monolithic Shi’ism in America, immigrant Shi’ism is also challenged by the youth in the community. According to Najjah Bazzy, a prominent member of the Islamic Center of America in Dearborn, the Iraqis brought with them an intense form of Shi’ism and expression of devotion to the family of the Prophet and have impacted the Lebanese community who relinquished some of their religious laxity and became more strict. More specifically, she notes, the Iraqis carried to the States the intensity of ‘Ashura’. The Lebanese were too lax; the Iraqis, on the other hand, were too stringent, leading to much altercation between the two groups. Due to such disparities, there has been considerable resistance to the Iraqi presence in some Lebanese centers in Dearborn.

Page 58:
In Dearborn, the Islamic Center of America is frequented primarily by the Lebanese. Within a few miles lies the Kerbala Center, which was established in 1995 to cater especially to the Iraqis. In my discussions with them, a few members of the Lebanese community in Dearborn restated the view that the relationship with the Iraqis in Dearborn was not very strong; in fact, there was some resistance to the Iraqi presence at the Islamic Center of America. Shaykh Hisham Husainy of the Kerbala Center in Dearborn admitted that a cultural chasm existed between the Lebanese and Iraqi Shi’is. The former, he observed, are more lax and do not observe a rigid interpretation of Islam. According to him, only a few Lebanese frequent the Kerbala Center.

Page 61:

The ethnic division dissipates in communities where Shi’is of different ethnic and cultural backgrounds come together to share limited resources and form multiethnic centers. In communities like Cleveland, Indianapolis, Seattle, Nashville, Phoenix, and Austin, the ethnic divide is almost nonexistent as different ethnic Shi’i groups coalesce under the common banner of the prophet and his progeny. Others may even hold joint religious programs with local Sunni communities. However, even in such multiethnic centers, there is much tension as different groups try to impose their peculiar understanding and articulation of Shi’ism. Occasionally there are disputes regarding which speakers to invite, what kind of food to serve, whether men and women should be seated in the same hall, whether and how to perform acts of flagellations, and the like. I observed much tension in one center engendered by a debate as to whether tabarri’ (which was understood by some to refer to the explicit cursing of the enemies of the ahl al-bayt), was to be undertaken during the programs or not. Some clearly felt that the center should replicate the old tradition of cursing the enemies of the family of the prophet whereas other members favored accentuating the more positive tawalli (stressing the virtues and following the examples of the prophet and his family)